design of building structures, this paper also introduces the equivalent vehicle load factors, which can simulate the concentrated load effects, in spite of its importance, have not been considered effectively in design practice treated as a beam in designing a bridge slab, a concept that is widely used by bridge designers.

are shown in the figures The use of such a variable equivalent concentrated load in place of the currently specified axle arrangements would probably simplify the work of the designer, particularly when rela tively complex euialyses are undertaken C Design and Analysis Problems For complex structures a direct design

Jun , WSDOT Bridge Design Manual M Page June Chapter Bridge Load Rating General Bridge load rating is a procedure to HL Operating HL Legal amp NRL Loads Permit EV Bridge Type Limit State DC DW p Reinforced Concrete Strength I .

This provision for deflection only is not applicable, since no pedestrian loading is applied in this bridge design example Criteria for Deflection only [SDG ] Class II Concrete (Bridge Deck) will be used for all environmental classifications Approach slabs are considered superstructure component The design life for

CONCRETE BOX GIRDER BRIDGES CHAPTER DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN PROCEDURES GENERAL i BEAM AND SLAB BRIDGES deflection These coefficients were used to normalize the plots for e.ase in comparison BEAM AND SLAB BRIDGES The studies of the three bridges discussed in

Mar , bridge For example, a bridge located in Southern California may not need to consider ice loads A pedestrian overcrossing structure may not have to be designed for Figure Truck Load Path from Deck Slab to Girders This force effect is the result of a concentrated load or uniform load placed near.

various load effects at any reference point on a transverse section of the bridge concentrated loads at the standard locations for which the charts are given of the design live loads, and accordingly are not always transportable between the various design codes Slab on girder bridges ..

May , developed for bridge decks, followed by a simplified approach that can be used to analyze bridge decks for these overloads LITERATURE REVIEW Westergaard () provides the basis for the design moments in bridge slabs due to concentrated loads, according to Section in the AASHTO Standard ().

Apr , LRFD Slab Bridge Design Slab bridges are defined as structures where the deck slab also serves as the main load carrying component The span to width ratios are such that these bridges may be designed for simple way bending as opposed to way plate bending This design guide provides

Jun , Definitions The definitions in this section supplement those given in LRFD Section Permanent Loads Loads and forces that are, or are assumed to be, either constant upon completion of construction or varying only over a long time interval Transient Loads Loads and forces that can vary over a short

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